What is a prepositions ?
The word preposition (pre + position) itself means that which is positioned (placed) before. Thus a preposition is usually placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other words in a sentence.
Position of a preposition
1. The preposition may be placed at the end of a sentence.
Example: This is the book (that) I was searching for.
2. The preposition may be placed sometimes at the beginning of a science.
Example: About whom are you talking?
Traditional classification of the preposition
Simple Preposition————- in ,of etc.
Compound Prepositions——–outside, without etc.
Double Prepositions—————In between, next to etc.
Participle Prepositions———- Considering, During etc.
Disguised repositions———–Father planned to go a hunting. (on hunting)
Complex Prepositions———–in view of, with reference to.
Modern classification of preposition
 Simple prepositions.……….. of, on, about etc.
 Complex prepositions.……..according to, in contact with etc.
Correct use of some prepositions
Both have same meaning. Either of them can be used if followed by ‘the’.
Example: He distributed the clothes among / amongst the poor.
If followed by a word, beginning with a vowel, then ‘amongst’ should be used.
Example: He distributed the clothes amongst us. The use of ‘amongst‘ is usually found in literary writings.
2 . Below / Under/Beneath :
Below / Under:
Below and under both mean lower than (in level) and sometimes either can be used.
But under usually denotes physical contact and below denotes space between the things.
He put the books under the pillow.
He put the lamp below the almirah.
They live below us. (We live at the second floor while they live at the first floor) He was wearing a sweater under the jacket.
Beneath : Something that is beneath another thing is under the other thing.
Example I could see the muscles of his shoulders beneath his T-shirt .
Beneath : Also means ‘unworthy as per status` or in lower strata in social class’.
It is beneath his dignity to beg for money.
3. After / Afterwards :
After must be followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund.
After breakfast, he ordered a taxi.
Don’t run immediately after eating.
If you do not like to use a noun/pronoun or gerund, you cannot use after but you can use afterwards or then : Example: Don’t have a meal and run immediately afterwards. Afterwards: It can be used at the end of a clause and can be modified by ‘soon’, ‘immediately’, ‘not long’ etc.
Examples: Soon afterwards I got a call.
I got a call not long afterwards.
4. In/ on / to :
Direction—–a)in (= inside),b) on ( = on the border) c) to (outside)
Kashmir is in the north of India.
The Himalayas stand on the north of India.
Srilanka is to the south of India.
5. On time / in time/ to time
the arranged time not before not after. The train started on time.
on time = the arranged time not before not after.
The train started on time.
In time = not late, with a comfortable margin..
We reached the station in time to catch the train.
To time = in tune with time
The Rajdhani Express is running to time.
6. On / onto :
On can be used for both existing position and movement :
Examples : He is sitting on the bench. (existing position)
Snow fell on the hills. (movement)
Onto is used when there is movement involving a change of level.
Examples: The little ant climbed onto the twig.
7. Till/By :
The crowd ran onto the pitch.
Till means not earlier than; by means not later than :
Examples: I was kept waiting till 4 o’clock (up to 3 o’clock)
We will return home by 3 o’clock (not later than 3 o’clock) 511
For is used of a period of time :
for two hours/ two days / two years long time etc.
‘During‘ is used with known periods of time i.e. periods known by name as Christmas Easter or periods which have been already defined.
during the Middle Ages.
during the summer.
during the childhood.
Omission of prepositions
The prepositions are generally omitted before last, next, this, yesterday, today etc.
He came here on yesterday.X
He came here yesterday. ✔
We may discuss it in next day.x
We may discuss it next day.✔
We don’t use preposition ‘to’ after the following verbs.
[let, hear, see, make, dare, help, watch]
Let him to speak. X
Let him speak.✔
I heard him to cry with pain.x
I heard him cry with pain. ✔
Verbs of command, request, invitation, advice normally do not take the preposition ‘to’ after them.
He advised to me to wait. x
He advised me to wait. ✔
I requested to the teacher to explain the poem again.x
I requested the teacher to explain the poem again.✔
Use of Appropriate Prepositions
Admission into or to (a place).
Admission (progress) of (learning).
Advance (of a person) in (knowldege).
Antidote to (some poision).
Antodote against (infection).
Application to (books).
Application for (employment).
Authority over (a person).
Authority on (a subject).
Accountable to (a person).
Accountable for (a thing).
Allied to (a thing).
Allied with (a person or country).
Angry at (a thing).
Angry with (a person).
Answer to (a person).
Arrive at (a small place).
Arrive in (country or a large city).
Attend to (a speaker).
Attend on (a person).
Abundance of (wealth)
Assent to (a proposal)
Accustomed to (work)
Avail ourselves of (an opportunity)
Attain to (a position)
Addicted to (drinking something)
Answer for (conduct).
Accede to (a request)
Abstain from (food, indulgence etc.)
Absolved from (a promise a sin)
Acquiesce an (opinion). in (proposal)
Adhere to (principles)
Afraid of (a ghost)
Abhorrent to (good neture)
Accession to (throne)
Apologise to (a person).
Apologise for (rudeness).
Assure of (a thing)
Absorbed in (study)
Acquit (someone) of a charge.
Acquaintance with (a person)
Bargain with (a person).
Bargain for (a thing).
Blessed with (good health).
Blessed in (his children).
Blind to (his own faults).
Blind in (one eye).
Beware of (cheating)
Competition with (a person).
Competition for (a thing).
Conformity with (anyone’s views).
Conformity (to rule).
Contribution to (a fund).
Contribution towards (some project).
Concur with (a person).
Concur in (an opinion).
Comply with (one’s wishes)
Condemn to (death)
Cured of (a disease)
Comply with (wishes)
Condemn to (death) Cured of (a disease)
Comply with (wishes)
Conductive to (health)
Disappointed in (a thing obtained).
Disappointed with (a person or thing).
Die (a disease). Die from (some cause as overwork). Die for (noble work)
Despair of (success)
Desirous of (doing some thing)
Deprive of (something)
Devoid of (quality)
Duty of (the country)
Eligible for (a post)
Exception to (a rule)
Excuse for (a fault)
Envious of (a person or a thing)
Exchange a thing with (a person)
Elder to (some family member)
Engagement in (the business).
Engagement (with a person).
Experience at (a thing).
Experience in (doing something).
Enter upon (a career).
Enter into (one’s plans).
Freedom from (care).
Freedom of action.
Fatal to (one’s cause)
Fearful of (death)
Furnish with (clothes)
Greedy at (money)
Glance at (a person or thing).
Glance over (a wide surface).
Gratitude for (a thing).
Gratitude to (a person).
Heir to (some property)
Heir of (some person).
Hope of better luck (noun).
Hope for better lunch (verb). Healed of (a disease).
Hopeful of (success).
Hostile to (a person)
Hunger after (fame)
Innocent of (a crime)
Intimate with (a person)
Invite to (dinner) Insist on a (thing)
Impertinent to (elders, authority)
Insight into (a mater or thing) Imputation to (guilt).
Imputation (against someone). Indulgence in wine.
Indulgence to (a person).
Influence over or with (a person).
Influence on (anyone’s actions).
Indebted to (a person).
Indebted for (some kindness).
Introduce to (a person).
Introduce into (a place).
Invested with (full powers).
Invested in (stocks and shares).
Impress an idea an a person.
Impress a person with (an idea).
Inform a person of (a thing).
Inform against (a person).
Inquire into (a matter).
Inquire of a person about or concerning
Jump at (eagerly accept) another
Jump to a conclusion
Jealous of (a person)
Keep to (the left, the point) Knock at (the door) Key to (the left, the point)
Laugh at (a person or thing
Laugh to (scorn).
Lean agaist (a wall).
Lean to (certain opinion).
Live for (riches or fame).
Live by (honest labour).
Live on (a small income). Live within (one’s means.)
Match for (a person)
Mourn for (the dead)
Mad with (anger)
Motive for (an action)
Necessity for (anything).
Necessity of the (case). Neglect at (duty).
Neglect (doing a thing).
Nomination of (a person).
Nomination to (a post).
Negligent of (duty). Negligent in (his work).
Need for (help)
Need of (a thing)
Natorious for (drinking, doing)
Outlook from (a window).
Overwhelmed with (sorrow, grief) Occur to (mind)
Pay for (one’s mistakes)
Passion for (study or a hobby) Paculiar to (a person or a thing) Persist in (doing)
Pity for poor, downtrodden Pleased with (a person)
Responsibility to (the law). Responsibility for (action). Ready for action. Ready in (his answers). Responsible to (a person). Responsible for (his action).
Search for (a thing)
Rejoice at (the success of another). Rejoice in (one’s own success). Refrain from (doing some wrong) Repent of (a mistake) Respectful to (a person) Rob (a person) at (a thing)
Secure from (harm).
Secure against (an attack).
Suited to (the occasion).
Suited for (a post).
Search for (something lost).
Search into (carefully examine) a matter.
Stare of (a person).
Stare a person in (the face).
Sentence to (punishment)
Short of (money)
Side with (a person)
Shocked at (a loss)
Superior to (a thing)
Sure of (some fact)
1. Among / Amongst
Sacred to (a cause)
2. Below / Under / Beneath
Surrender to (enemy)
Stick to (point)
Suspect of (something not nice) Slur on (character)
Triumph over (difficulties) Troubles to (person)
Translate into (english)
Touch upon (a subject)
Trust in (a person).
Trust of someone’s honesty
Vain of (beauty)
Want of (money)
Wanting in (wisdom’s good qualities)
Worthy of (a reward)
Wait at table.
Wait on a person or thing.
Wait on (attened a person).
Work at (subject)
Yield to (an enemy)