Best Paragraph Writing for Class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Best Paragraph Writing for Class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12


What is a paragraph ?

A paragraph is a sequence of sentences written around a topic. The first sentence generalizes the topic. It is called a topic sentence. This sentence is followed by supporting interrelated sentences.

Go through the following basic features of a paragraph:

(1) A paragraph is usually between two and seven sentences long. Some paragraphs are longer, and at times you might even see onesentence paragraphs, but most are between two and seven sentences.

(2) A paragraph has a special shape.

Leave a little space on the left side to write the first line of your paragraph. It should start a little away from the margin. Write to the end of every line except the last one. If a sentence ends in the middle of a line, don’t go to the next line to start the next sentence. Write it on the same line.

(3) A paragraph is about one main idea.

A paragraph usually explains or describes one topic. When the topic changes, you should start a new paragraph.



RECESSIONS ARE the result of reduction in the demand of products in the global market. Recession can also be associated with falling prices known as deflation due to lack of demand of products. Again, it could be the result of inflation or a combination of increasing prices and stagnant economic growth in the west.

Recession in the West, specially the United States, is a very bad news for our country. Our companies in India have most outsourcing deals from the US. Even our exports to US have increased over the years. Exports for January have declined by 22 percent. There is a decline in the employment market due to the recession in the West. There has been a significant drop in the new hiring which is a cause of great concern for us. Some companies have laid off their employees and there have been cut in promotions, compensation and perks of the employees. Companies in the private sector and government sector are hesitant to take up new projects. And they are working on existing projects only. Projections indicate that up to one crore persons could lose their jobs in the correct fiscal ending March. The one crore figure has been compiled by Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO), which says that it has carried out an intensive survey. The textile, garment and handicraft industry are worse affected. Together, they are going to lose four million jobs by April 2009, according to the FIEO survey. There has also been a decline in the tourist inflow lately. The real estate has also a problem of tight liquidity situations, where the developers are findi finances.

Majority of Indian IT farms deriving at least 70% of their revenue from the US, software multinationals in India began freezing wage increases and slashing salaries. Aviation, the automobile industry, the tourism sector and other big industries felt the heat. There was a drastic fall in inward remittances from non-resident Indians. The GDP declined.

According to Chidambaram, since India is not basically an export oriented country it is not facing recession but a slowdown. According to experts, this economic recession across the globe will continue for some time but hopes for the dawn of the sun on Indian economy is in the offing.


One of the biggest benefits of modern technology is that human longivity and health have improved because of its application. As understanding of the body and its functions improves, and as new tools to help heal it (lasers, sonograms, enchanced medication and nonintrusive surgical tools, just to name a few) are created, life lasts longer. Not only does life extend, but people can live more cmfortably, and recover from wounds and diseases that even a half a century ago would have been fatal. In many cases these people live full, productive lives.

Technology has revolutionized the communication of today. Since World War II, telecommunications and mass media have been growing by leaps and bounds, Radio, telephone, satellite communication, cellular technology, wireless internet help modern day people chat via a computer when they’re on opposite sides of the planet. Communication has shrunk the world, bringing people from all cultures and backgrounds into contact with each other.

Every benefit has its price. The more blatant effects of technology are well known. The devastating result is the climate change, and man’s social alienation. In addition to these, ther are the more subtle and little understood dangers that occur within the human mind. The increasing pace of contemporary life leads to stress and burnout, and the tidal wave of information that is entering lives, if not properly managed, can lead to disorientation and despair.


School children are always seen carrying a huge bag of books and notebooks with them. Right from the KG to 10th standard all have huge burden of studies. Now-a-days parents want their children to be amongst the toppers. For that they spend huge bucks on their children’s studies so that they can study in better and efficient way. This increases among students a spirit of competition and they sometimes work even harder to prove themselves.

But this does not create champions. It only puts a lot of burden on school children. Childhood is a time when kids grow and become mature. Their mental and physical health inproves and they are able to learn and explore new things during that time. But in schools a huge pressure of studies and work are put on children. And they only study in schools. Schools, especially, private schools follow a particular curriculum and a well defined pattern. This puts an immense pressure on schools which have to complete the syllabus on time. This ultimately leads to undue pressure on children. This sometimes creates a negative impact on children because they sometimes make themselves so busy that they forget other important things in life like playing, reading other journals and books.

Students never enjoy their summer and winter vacations because they are always engaged with huge amount of homework and assignments for the vacations. The homework is too heavy for them to keep social interactions. Though a student’s life is meant for study the burden should not prove a last straw on the camel’s back. It is rightly said that “A too much stretched string becomes strong up to a certain limit, after that it breaks.”

Students always enjoy when they are in school because they always go to school to learn something, not to get overburdened. Hence schools should always do something to cope with this problem because children being the future of our country should never be mistreated.

Something should be done to do good to school. They should be given lesser homework. They should be made to do written work in schools only and the children will only have to do learning work and activities at home. Also children should always be encouraged to learn not to cram things. The curriculam should be such as would impart the learners concrete education and not the abstract one. The parents along with the school authority should work in tandem to lessen the burden of study on the kids.


Wildlife includes a diversity of species that contributes in a special way to the beauty of nature. Such beauty enriches life and increases the enjoyment of camping and outdoor recreation. Wildlife represents the result of many years of evolution and constitutes an environmental heritage to the past, a world which once surrounded our ancestors. Apart from the aesthetical or ethical reasons, there are also educational arguments to preserve wildlife.

Man in his zeal for progress fails to realize that his own existence is being jeopardised. “Civilization”, as we apply the term, is not just cities, industrial developments, miles of highways, enormous airfields and numerous other technological conveniences. By destroying wildlife for civilization and culture, we are only negating the meaning of the words. The decision of conservation is in our hands and man seems to be going in the right direction regarding this decision that holds the key to the future of our most valuable natural resource.

Governments of several nations have passed laws and set aside national parks, sanctuaries and other wildlife reserves in an effort to save the dwindling wildlife. Such efforts have saved several species from becoming extinct. However, these efforts have to increase several fold, at least about three fourths of the species threatened with extinction can be redeemed.


Child marriage takes place when two children are forced to marry each other with the consent of the two families. The children are forced into the institution of marriage without knowing its significance in the long run.

Though parents are of the opinion that they involve their children in such rituals because it is an age old custom and it will also secure the future of their children but the reality is not so. Though in some cases parents believe in such superstitions and dogmas in other cases greed is the most significant factor.

The sad news is that the institution of child marriage is still present in India in a number of villages and districts. Though the government has taken strict actions and child marriage has been declared a big crime, still this practice is prevalent till today.

The question that arises is what can be done to stop this hidden crime. Apart from the measures taken by the government it is essential for colleges and other institutions like nongovernment organizations to make certain moves. Short films, live plays can be shown to them and the moral behind these plays should obviously show the pathetic future of the kids who are forced to get married. More and more schools should be set up in such villages as a result of which people will sooner or later get their children admitted in schools. Such people should also be informed about the punishment given by the law and order of the country in an exaggerated way so that they get immensely scared even before thinking about such a crime. It is also advisable on the part of the government to take as strict actions as possible in order to abolish this institution completely.


Internet can be reckoned as the latest discovery of man which has revolutionised his style of working and living. It has totally reduced distance, broken all man-made barriers and made our world a small space.

The greatest merit of Internet is that it opens a world of information at the press of a key. It helps to gather information from storage areas of the servers called websites. Today we can get any information on any topic in a matter of seconds. We can visit libraries situated thousands of miles away, enjoy world famous sights which we have only imagined, talk to people, listen to lectures, read the day’s newspapers, transact business, place orders, etc. just sitting in our room. Internet can provide the latest information on education, sports, entertainment, science, medicine, general knowledge etc. in seconds. Internet has improved our communication system. It has provided an exciting and easy mode of communication known as E-Mail (Electronic Mailing system). Today we can send letters and mails to anyone living in any part of the world just by clicking a few buttons on our computer and that too at an extremely cheap rate.

Although, Internet immensely helps man in his day-to-day transactions, yet it is a tool that is often misused. Today thousands of youth are getting ‘hooked’ to Internet watching things which are not meant for them. Electronic pornography is ruining our youth. Cyber crimes, illegal piracy into private lives and military software, creating new type of computer virus etc. have become quite common now-a-days. Internet hackers (those who try to block the working of other internets) are on the rise, creating havoc in the world of business and communication. Too much dependence of man on this man-made machine is also ruining man’s innate qualities.




In today’s context Terrorism should be defined to mean as an act where a group of people try to put pressure on any authority by violent means to achieve their evil goal. It is a method of secret combat in which random or symbolic victims serve as an instrumental target of violence. These instrumental victims share group or class characteristics that form the basis for their selection for victimization.

Causes of terrorism are not far to find. Religion and cultural differences, freedom from despots, need for democracy, economic disparity and deprivation of populace by the States, short sightedness of politicians, over ambition of state to dominate the World, are some of them. However, today, Islamic countries are generally blamed for growing terrorism in the World.

India is facing greater problem of terrorism mostly encouraged and supported by the neighboring countries. Islamic terror groups are continuously growing with the active assistance of neighboring countries. It may become vicious if they get new instruments of terrorism like biological weapons or atom bombs.

Governments should never forget that fighting terrorism is like being a goal keeper. You can make a hundred brilliant saves but the only shot that people remember is the one that gets past you.




Discrimination against female children has been a topic of debate today. It has been a subject of concern and sociological significance. This subject raises the cultural aspects about the role of a female child in society, her rights as a human being and a number of sensitive issues. This issue is important because there is nearly universal consensus on the need for gender equality.

There are two main inequalities as pointed out by Amartya Sen, the educational inequality and health inequality. These are the indicators of a woman’s status of welfare. In India irrespective of the caste, creed, religion and social status, the overall status of a woman is lower than a man and therefore a male child is preferred over a female child.

A social development report presented in 2010 to the World Bank and UNDP, found that the time a female child and a male child spend on various activities is similar, with the exception of domestic work and social/resting time. A female child spends nearly three fourths of an hour more on domestic work than a male child and therefore lesser hours of social activity/resting than boys.

In western countries women are born with the advantage not just in political and economic opportunities but also in their ability to access health care.

It has often been argued that women’s education is the key to reducing discrimination against daughters. However, female literacy rate has risen from 15% to 54%, even as the juvenile sex ratio has fallen.

The female child in India is often deprived of her right of education. The basic facility of education is denied to her. Also, even if she is in school, the number of girls dropping out of school far exceeds the boys. Definitely, this is because she is expected to help at home, either in household work like washing, cooking or help in taking care of her younger siblings.

Also, even with education and financial independence, women might not get the same rights and liberties which a man may have.




‘Extreme sport’ which is also known as action sports, agro sport, and adventure sport is a popular term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized gear. The definition of an extreme sport is not exact and the origin of the term is unclear, but it gained popularity in the 1990s when it was picked up by marketing companies to promote the X Games. While use of the term “extreme sport” has spread far and wide to describe a multitude of different activities, exactly which sports are considered ‘extreme’ is debatable. There are, however, several characteristics common to most extreme sports. They are rarely sanctioned by schools. Extreme sports tend to be more solitary than traditional sports. Rafting and paintballing are notable exceptions, as they are done in teams. In addition, beginning extreme athletes tend to work on their craft without the guidance of a coach, though some may hire a coach later.

In a traditional sporting event, athletes compete against each other under controlled circumstances. While it is possible to create a controlled sporting event such as X Games, there are environmental variables that cannot be held constant for all athletes. Examples include changing snow conditions for snowboarders, rock and ice quality for climbers, and wave height and shape for surfers.

Whilst traditional sporting judgment criteria may be adopted when assessing performance (distance, time, score, etc.), extreme sports performers are often evaluated on more subjective and aesthetic criteria. This results in a tendency to reject unified judging methods, with different sports employing their own ideals and indeed having the ability to evolve their assessment standards with new trends or developments in the sports.

Some contend that the distinction between an extreme sport and a conventional one has as much to do with marketing as with the level of danger involved or the adrenaline generated. For example, rugby union is both dangerous and exciting. but it is considered an extreme sport due to its traditional image, and because it does not involve high speed or an intention to perform stunts. There are a numbers of brave heart youths across the globe who believe in taking risk to gain, to achieve something. They are the embodiments of the famous saying, “No Risk No Gain”. It is, of course, a fact that a certain amount of risk can give us a thrill which can never be felt in any way. Trekking, paragliding and parachuting are all different forms of adventure sports which we can experience not only for pleasure or thrill but also for knowledge. Since dynamism is life, like Ulyssess we can say ‘we shall drink life to the lees’.



Deforestation, one of the major curses of modern society is always threatening our existence. The sheer hunt for wealth and complete indifference to environmental backlash is responsible for deforestation across the globe. Dishonest businessmen cut the trees to sell them at a high price, sometimes throwing dust to the forest rangers and sometimes entering into an unholy deal with the local goons, political leaders and administration.

Deforestation and forest degradation are both a cause and a result of climate change. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and use it to grow, but when they decay or burn, carbon dioxide is released again. Decaying plants also produce methane, a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide.

So deforestation and forest degradation are doubly damaging, because greenhouse gases are released (e.g. through forest fires, or using the cut trees as firewood), while at the same time the number of carbon dioxide absorbing trees is reduced. Thirty percent of the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere over the past 150 years is thought to come from deforestation, but this is a small amount compared to what is still stored in forests. The Canadian and Russian boreal forests alone hold 40 percent of the world’s carbon stocks. Changes in temperature ranges and precipitation can harm forests. Drought and forest fires are expected to increase due to climate change.

Obviously, re-forestation, development logging and protecting ancient forests are essential if we do not want the pace of climate change to increase further.



After spending some years with our class-mates, teachers, school staff when we have to leave school along with all of our above associates at the last day suddenly our emotion brust out in rolling tears. A strong sort of nostalgia about those halcyon days of the past, those days of unbounded joy with our play mates, those days of rigorous study before the examinations and those days of Saraswati Puja, Cultural Functions and Annual Sports in schools cross our mind in a flash and joy the reluctant pangs of abdication, a queer joy of liberation lend us a kind of feel which beggars description.

This overwhelming feeling makes us think that hence we shall have to keep ourselves aloof from such many smilling faces that we meet everyday. There will be a great distance from them. Only a mobile or social net working will be helpful to contact with our friends and others. But this will not enable us to enjoy the close contact with them. Gradually such a sense will act in our mind as out of sight is out of mind.

The day of a farewell is the most heart-rendring period in every student’s life. It seems to us too painful to say goodbye for ever. The most emotional period comes when teachers embrace us as our parents. We are prepared from our schools for the larger world. So from this day we learn to forget the past events that we pass by and try to keep in mind the valuable instructions they set before us as human-beings should follow.



Education given in later period of life is called adult education. Without education life is a misery. It is high time to get education at the earlier stage of life. To make our lives happy education is most essential no doubt.

In our rural areas the majority are illiterate. They can not even sign their names. Since our Independence Day India has undertaken many plans for the development of our country. Adult Education is one of them. If the majority are illiterate, our country will not thrive at all.

It is a pity that Indian govt. can not yet introduce compulsory education in our country. So a large number of people still remain illiterate. This section of people are mostly poor. They are ill-fed, ill-clad, ill sheltered and ill-treated by the educated people. They become the victims of epidemic diseases and die immature death. When they will be given education they will be conscious about their position, they will be able to learn what is bad for for them and what is good. They will no longer be exploited by the self seeking political leaders.

Hence it is needless to say that elderly people’s education is of utmost importance to-day. Considering the importance of adult education specially in the rural areas W.B. Govt. has directed the panchayets to give stress on adult education. Adult education does not simply mean the ability to sign one’s names but also to educate them to learn three R’s i.e. Reading, writing and doing sums.

The success of all these programmes will depend on our responsible administration and sincere leaders and also workers engaged in this programme. Kerala has reached her goal in this respect. Their examples will inspire others to follow them. Some districts like Midnapore, Burdwan and Birbhum of W.B are also following their paths.


India is stepped in by many problems. Some of them are unemployment, poverty problem, popultion problems, safe drinking water, shortge of housing problem and so on. But another serious problem is the problem of child labour. It is undoubtedly a socio-economic problem. The children below eighten are largely appointed in hotels, boarding houses, restaurants, tea-shops, factories and fisheries. They are engaged in all sorts of work for earning something for their poor families. In failing to fit they are also deprived of even primary education. So they can not succeed in life. These children are unfortunate as they are forced to take up jobs for food. They are also engaged in tending cows. Sometimes they are engaged in richman’s houses as servants. Girl children have to act as maid-servants and baby-sitters. They cook and sweep dirt, wash clothings and collect fuel. It is reported that children are sold to Arab countries for camel race.

In India there are about one hundred million child labourers. They are engaged in different trades. Their parents can not properly bring up their children. So they are bound to send them to earn their livelihood. This social curse can not be abolished easliy. I think it may be abolished by arranging financial help to the poor families. They should also be arranged free education and treatment. Otherwise the problem of child labour will remain rampant everywhere.


Modern world is based on publicity. Advertisement, frankly speaking, lords over all nowa-days. They are designed to promote the particular interest of a definite person or the sale of product. In ancient times oral advertisement was carried on by hawkers. In modern age though hawkers hawk various kinds of things, yet publicity in print is more essential and extensive form of advertising. Audio-visual publicity is found in modern television.

Advertisement makes a thing know to the people commercially. In modern business world it plays an important role to establish contact between the buyer and the seller. This is the medium through which the customer comes to know of the existence and the utility of the items available in the market. In modern times the business world has become very complex with keen competition. So businessmen spend huge sum of money on advertisement and this is highly profitable investment. Newspapers, periodicals, cinemas, banners, radio, television – all methods can compete with each other in the filed of modern advertisement.

Advertising is not an easy act. The technic in this field have so developed. The laws off psychology that they are able to determine the degree of recetiveness of sense organs. Particularly vision and hearing and the intensity of enternal action of such organs to produce the particular effect desired. Advertisement, however, is not without demerits. It does not allow cheap and good articles to reach the market. It creates artificial demand for things which we do not require. It forces us to buy costly things. It creates disharmony in the family when one young member want such advanced goods which can not afforded by others. Besides sometimes many below standard goods are shown as high standard by advertising them with much fanfare. But the most harmful effect of advertisement is seen on the moral field.


There are many kinds of fair in our country. They are like etc. But now are acquainted with a new kind of fair which is the Book Fair. A Book Fair is a fair of books. They are our never failing friends. They stay beside us in our weal and woe. It is of recent origin. It is held only in cities and towns. It attracts the religious fairs, industrial fairs attention of a particular section of people i.e. the cultural and intellectual section.

With the advancement of education the desire for reading books in on the increase. Though books are available in book shops in different parts of the country, a Book Fair has a particular attraction for book-lovers, many publishers from different parts of the country come to the said fair and discuss on their books recently published. The books are displayed here before the respective book stalls. This is a great advantage to view the books openly. The book-lovers are encouraged to purchase books and get discounts.

Every year a book fair is held in calcutta. The first Book fair was held in 1976. The 13th Book Fair was held in 1987. It continued for 12 days. It was organised by an energetic group of publishers under the name of ‘Book Sellers and Publishers’ Guild. In the first Book Fair there were only 35 stalls. Thereafter the popularity of Book Fair is increasing by and by. This popularity has reached such a point as many foreign publishers have joined it. Besides it has been recognised by the International Publishing Association.

Inspired by the success of this fair, people from some other towns and villages of west Bengal are now holding such fairs in their respective places. The West Bengal Govt. has also now been holding such a fair every year since 1981. Book fairs are extremely necessary these days to inspire reading habit among the masses.


I read in class XI. and I am proud to be the student of Putiary Brajomohan Tewary Institution. The institution is situated at 26 Banerjeepara Road. It is u shaped and four storeyed. It has a yard which accommodates more than 600 bicycles. More than one thousand students gather on the yard everyday for prayer. After the prayer is over students go to their classes in rows silently. As soon as the bell rings teachers go to their classes with Attendance Registers and the students greet the teachers with good morning. The teachers also wish the taught the same. There is a homely relation between the teachers and the taught though, the students respect each of the teachers and carry out their instructions. There is a huge collection of books in our library and whenever we get time, we go straight into the library and fall to reading books. No student in our school loiters on the corridor. It is during the recess hours that students go downstairs to have their food at the canteen. Computer class is compulsory for us and we all enjoy the class in the computer room. There are as many as 50 computers in our school. Some of them are used in the library, office, teachers’ room and language laboratory. My school sits at 11.30 am and closes at 5 pm. But to speak the truth I never feel bored in the class room. Most of our teachers use teaching aids like projectors, charts, diagrams, pictures, maps, posters, portraits and images. Each class seems to be interesting.


Since time immemorial our sages and saints have been preaching that sinners should not be looked down upon; it is their sins that are to be condemned. Ramakrishna and Jesus Christ both were of the opinion of forgiving the sinners or the offenders. They believed in the famous saying, to err is human and to forgive divine’. Jesus Christ himself forgave those who mercilessly and most heinously whipped, spat and crucified him in spite of his innocence. All these saints including those great men like Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther demonstrated to a great extent how the power of love works miracles on the opponents. Even Mother Teresa who even a few years back were alive used to stress upon the far-reaching effect of love on man including the offenders.

According to psychologists, no man is a born sinner and a man may have a very cruel attitude but he or she may develop changes in good environment and under good guidance. It is to correct the behaviour and attitude of the criminals that the concept of correction cell came into being in modern world. Even the most advanced countries are in favour of abolishing death sentence. All these make it crystal clear that a criminal should be given the chance to correct himself or herself and that instead of punishing the criminals they should be cured.

But if we look at our real life situations we find that depending on the degree of offence or criminality we should judge whether the criminals should be punished or cured at all. For example if an international terrorist is arrested is there any chance of curing him and sending him to his own country? The curing of such a criminal who has mercilessly butchered a number of people becomes a political and sentimental issue to the whole country and in absence of exemplary punishment the terrorist acts would continue and the safety of our nation will hang in the balance.

The treatment of a common offender or a juvenile criminal or one arrested on his first act of cruelty or one who has committed a crime on the spur of the moment should be otherwise. Such criminals are easy to be cured and they themselves can carry to the world the message that a criminal can turn into a man again through counselling, love and in some cases through psychiatric treatment.


Science and religion are two great disciplines. With the advancement of civilization they are getting more and more important to man. If these two great subjects of study are combined harmoniously, they can bring about an all-round expression of human genius and complete fulfilment. But due to the impact of western culture the relationship between the two has not been quite happy. In the twentieth century, however, a new approach is becoming evident. Representative thinkers among scientists and religious people are beginning to discern a close interrelation between them. It is being realised more and more by both that there are elements in science that religion can adopt to fortify itself, and elements in religion that can deepen and strengthen science.

It is said that religion is based on faith and science is based on reason. But this is not true. While religion deals with the truths of the metaphysical world, science deals with the truths

of the physical world. What Swami Vivekananda says in this context is true: “The sage is ignorant of physical science, because he reads the wrong book- the book within; and the scientist too is often ignorant of religion, because he, too reads the wrong book – the book without.’

In fact, there is no denying the fact that science and religion are dependent on each other. The truth gathered from internal experience is psychology, metaphysics and religion; from external experience physical sciences. Now, a perfect truth should be in harmony with experiences in both these worlds. The research in medical science for mentally retarded persons is impossible without the information from man’s internal world, i.e. mind and heart.

So religion and science can not be separated into two different water tight compartments. Physical Science, on the other hand has many limitations. It offers us only a delux edition of our ancient, wild life. But it can not solve the mystery of the universe. Neither can it explain the existence of man on earth. But true religion free from all superstitions and false beliefs teaches us the significance of the soul in each man.


Had I been the Prime Minister of India I would have considered myself fortunate enough to represent a country which is so rich in natural resources, human strength and cultural variety. Our country is a unique land which is aptly described as an ‘ethnological museum’ by Vincent Smith; the eminent historian. This is a country where people irrespective of caste, creed and religion live happily. This is a country where a galaxy of great souls have been born and laid down their lives for the sake of others. But it is a matter of regret that India has to pass through presently a number of problems like corruption, unemployment, poverty, nepotism, sessionism, terrorism and at times communal disharmony. If I were the Prime Minister I would use my all powers to fight against such evil or ugly forces. I would have sacrificed my life to uplift the poor and inculcate in the students’ minds the values of morality, sacrifice and honesty.

In spite of several hyped social drives and conferences most Indians still remain unfed and unsheltered. My first and foremost duty would be to alleviate the misery of the poor and ensure certain fundamental necesities of life like food, shelter and clothing to all. I would try the best I could to mete out social and economic justice to each and every citizen of India.

India is a multilingual and multiracial country. Attempts are being made by various sessionist forces to thwart its spirit of unity. The internal as well as foreign forces are active in using the economic backwardness of the poverty-stricken mass and the frustrated unemployed youth to fulfil their narrow interests. My sincere assay would be to draw a permanent curtain over all sorts of fanatic, terrorist and fissiparous tendencies.

I would be scrupulous enough in my foreign policy too and take all sorts of measures to cow down the evil forces and institute a harmony between us and our neighbouring countries. I would also try to implement the policy of nuclear disarmament by all countries. I must see that each and every citizen of our country gets education. I shall build a strong infrastructure to stop child abuses, eve-teasing, corruption and drug trafficking. I would

also try to stop brain drain and provide all sorts of opportunities to the scholars so that they can research on different fields of learning staying at home.

My next step would be to appoint a body of officers who would be entrusted with the duty of surveying the educational institutions and doing their best to ensure the recruitment of best teachers. I believe that teachers with high moral values and sound academic records can build up a nation which would be self-sufficient to take our country to the pinnacle of prosperity, making it an ideal world of peace and happiness.


Choice of career has now been the most problemetic issue among the young learners as well their guardians. With the advancement of time innumerable openings are knocking at the door. There are numberless jobs now that the students can opt after their proper education and grooming.

Hence, it is very difficult to make the right choice of career. But it is also true that we should take a firm decision quite early in our life or we shall waste our energy and time switching from one business to the other and thereby destroying our career in fine. Though there are different jobs in this world, good jobs can be landed only through specialized training in specific fields. So befitting career should be chosen during the formative years of a student to reach a highwater mark of excellence. Those who go on differing about choosing a career and procastinating over joining a course or a job become frustrated at the end. In trying to have expertise on manifold fields, one becomes a jack of all trade and master of none. But modern age does demand masters and not Jacks. So with intense interest, unflinching enthusiasm and iron determination one should choose a career quite early in one’s life. Of course, while choosing a career a student should always consider his genuine field of interest. If guardians put pressure on their kids to choose their career, if they go against the desire of their kids, they would either fail to be successful in life and live with a heavy heart or would do their jobs half-heartedly. There are, however, plenty of students who are equally efficient in many subjects. It is really a problem for such multifaceted talents to choose careers. But if such talents choose a career quite early in life they will create history.


Since time immemorial drugs have been in use by mankind for medicine and for the well-being of the people. But it is a matter of grave concern that people are taking drugs to excite themselves and to enjoy a different state of existence. The increasing number of drug addicts is posing a great threat to society. According to the statistical records taken in 1988 by WHO there are over 7,50,000 heroin addicts, 4.8 million cocaine abusers, 1.76 million opium abusers and 3.4 million abusers of barbiturates, sedatives and tranquilisers around the world. The abuse of drugs is now an international problem which disturbs the peace at both home and abroad.

Initially a man takes a fill to alleviate pain or taste a thrill at the persuasion of his friends. But very soon he develops an attachment to and dependence on the thrill. Gradually the

addict becomes mentally and physically dependent, requiring increasing dose daily, in absence of which he shows withdrawal symptoms’. Ultimately the addiction becomes a habit and to purchase drugs he goes on lightening and exhausting the purse load. Soon he resorts to selling his precious possessions. When the addict is left with no other source of fund then he or she resorts to stealing the valuables. The addict gets socially ostracized and his health breaks down. The relatives of the drug addicts fall in great trouble. Too much addiction to drugs leads the addict to the door of death. Recent findings show that 88% of the heroin addicts in India are in the age group of 14 to 25 years, the crucial age of adolesence. The lack of value education, and the impact of media, mobile and internet degrade moral values of the youths and lead to addiction.

Lack of guidance from the parents’ side, indomitable wish to experience the unknown and to march with the times’, frustration and unemployment are some of the other reason why the youths take to drugs. Minor tranquilisers prescribed by doctors may also lead to addiction if taken regularly for a considerable length of time.

The medical treatment for detoxification is not sufficient, unless supplemented by Group Therapy. ‘Aversion Treatment’ by Behaviourial Psycho-Therapy may also come to help. Logotherapy can be applied to boost positive thinking in the victims. At the same time they should be involved in some group cultural activities or some craftwork. Above all, a concerted attempt on the part of the guardians, common poeple, government institutions and non-official rehabilitation centres can only reduce the rate of drug abusing to a great extent.


When I was born in a factory in Mumbai I felt so much astounded to see armed people guarding me and my brothers. I along with other coins was put in a vault in a big bank. I felt morose as I thought I would be confined in that dark room for ever. But only after a couple of weeks I got a fresh lease of life when a businessman took me with a lot of other coins to his house. The man took great care of me and loved me very much for my shiny look. He held me in high esteem and saved me from any damage. He kept me in his purse and saw that I was not given to anybody at any cost. In the beginning I enjoyed being with him but staying with him for a year I felt a bit bored and longed for adventure. To my utter surprise I discovered myself one day in the hands of a rickshaw puller who was taking my master to his office. I was kept on the palm of the rickshaw puller and found my master’s eyes swimming with tears. I did feel also the pangs of abdicating his company but slowly adapted my new life. My new master fell in love with me at first sight and determined to keep me with him for ever bought little box from the market and locked me within it. I did not want to be confined in a box, however, I liked very much to move from one hand to the other. I slept for some days. But slowly I started gasping for the company of the people and waited in bated breath to mix with my brothers. After a year or so when a little rust stained my gloss, the rickshaw puller fell in trouble. He had to give me to a baker to buy some bread for his ailing wife. No sooner had I got into the hands of the shopkeeper I was handed over to a customer for a change. The customer kept me hardly for a minute. Soon after he had met a beggar he dropped me into his begging bowl. I had to stay with some other coins of lower value. This

is the first time in my life that I had to stay with the shabby coins. But my stay with them did not last long. After the day’s end the beggar upturned the bowl to give all his collection to the priest of a local temple, who gave her some fruits and some sweets.


Cruelty to animals is as heinous as cruelty to man. A stringent law prohibiting cruelty to animals should be introduced presently. There are innumerable ways in which animals are tortured, brutally killed and cooked for man to eat. When I had seen a Japanese drinking the fluid of a living Monkey’s brain through a straw, I lost my nerves and went out of the place panting terribly. Nothing can be more inhuman than killing animals in such a way. In my boyhood I saw people boiling living turtles, peeling off their skin and cutting their meat for cooking. A pig is killed by pushing a burning (hot) rod into its back. Most people who relish the palatable dish of pork on the dining table do not know how the pigs are killed. Cows, calves, hens, goats, beautiful birds and a lot of other animals including the pets are killed brutally to prepare our food. There is no limit to the extent of cruelty meted out to animals. When street dogs are shot dead nobody reacts except some animal lovers. The great animal lover Maneka Gandhi writes articles on various newspapers or journals or blogs to rouse the awareness of the people against the act of cruelty to man. But little does man pay heed to her appeals. This is pitiful and a shame to all of us.


When, where and to whom I was born I do not know. When my eyes grew I saw that I was lying by the side of a drain. The drain came out of a two storeyed building and I could get some left-overs, there. For a long time I lived alone. As luck would have it some children from the neighbourhood once came to play with me. Soon they befriended me and would give some biscuits, cakes and noodles everyday. With the passage of time I could procure some food from amidst the garbage heaped on by the roadside. Before the Municipality van could take away the filth I got everyday varieties of edibles.

One day I saw some cute puppies playing in the middle of a road. Everybody was rejoicing, the day going a bit slow because of a bandh call. I was so glad to see them rejoice that I ran towards them and expressed my eagerness to join them. In the wake of seeing me they withdrew and told me that I was not supposed to be with them as, I was an orphan and untouchable. I wandered lonely for a few days blaming my fate and cursing my parents who had subjected me to such a tortuous situation. I knew then that I was a pariah, a street dog who is fated to survive on the mercy of the people. Like all street dogs I had to take the taste of the oily left-overs in the vat. My health broke down and I felt demoralized. Once I was sleeping under the shade of a busstop. One man came and poked my right eye with the needlelike edge of his umbrella. I ran away when some boys pelted bricks at me. The more I was screaming in agony the more they made fun of me.


Living in this age of breakneck speed seldom do we hope to go slow and to catch time by the forelock we are destined to be hasty in our work. Nobody now-a-days want to waste time and nobody has time to wait for some job to be done slowly. This explains why we feel bored and uncomfortable when we have to wait at the queue before the ticket counter, at the office and even before the computer to browse or download the desired thing. The more advanced the country is the more is the speed. Speed has been the essential condition for better living.

In order to keep pace with the growing demand for speed people are trying to invent more and morespeedy vehicles. There has started a sort of competition between the countries to overtake each other in speed. If Japanmakes the train run at 450 km per hour China invents train that runs 500 km per hour. If 2g service does not seem speedy we can buy 4g service. Age has progressed a lot since BBC computer was considered a wonder. Speed definitely has taken us to a dizzy height. If scientists had not concentrated on speed escape velocity would have been a distant reality and launching satellites in the space and knowledge of the other galaxies would have been a far cry.


Compelled under the monotony and burden of the curriculum the young lads now-adays are synonymous with the stunted and emaciated figures. “The heavy weight of[school] hours has chained and bowed” their childhood innocence and ebullient spirit. In the absence of sound physique, the mental power is jeopardized and the result is a dismal show-a nonchalant limping generation living an insipid and graceless life. This is the most deplorable flaw in our educational framework which has not realized still that games and sports are an indispensable part of education, providing the necessary stimulus for nurturing the seeds of talent.

Games and sports have always helped in establishing cordial and harmonious relations among different individuals, states and nations. They provide an opportunity to mingle with persons of different countries, thus giving a fair chance to develop friendship and rapport. The players get the lesson that the victory and defeat is to be accepted with a sportsman spirit. Discipline which is a precondition of success is developed on a playground. Not only discipline but self control, self-reliance, aplomb are imbibed in us through sports. So the playground itself becomes a school, imparting the best education to us.

Let the children regain the freedom to hop, jump and play like a roe. Just remove the cumbersome and dull load of work from their shoulders and all the jitters from their mien will vanish. They will turn out to be better citizens assimilating the goodness of the books in amuch better manner than what they are doing presently. This is why Swami Vivekananda truly said, “It is better to play football than read the Gita.”


Music is highly a versatile art that originates in nature and has been taken up by mankind as a way of expression and also as an art. Music, the essential food of the human soul is as old as the hills. Its history can be traced back to Paleolithic era. When man first communicated with each other they spoke in rhythmic tone, used whistles and different musical sounds. Even gods in heaven are said to have doted on sweet melody of songs and lyrics to the accompaniment of a variety of sounding instruments. The present-day civilization is impossible to exist without the music which is why people in public places are even all ears to music in their mobiles, Ipods and different electronic gadgets. Thus through the ages music has been a part and parcel of human life.

Music can be called both the most mathematical and abstract of the arts. According to Thomas Carlyle, music is well said to be the speech of the angels. According to Beethoven, music is higher revelation than philosophy. Music,however, has been used as a healing force for centuries. During biblical times David played the harp to rid King Saul of a bad spirit. Aristotle described music as a force that purified emotions. It is now proved that music therapy works wonders on neurological problems and various emotional disorder. Most recent research suggests that music can increase patient’s motivation and positive emotions.


Democracy which is defined as opposite to monarchy, aristocracy, theocracy and dictatorship is definitely an ideal concept. But in reality it proves a hoax. In fact, in a democratic set up the government is formed not by the votes of the few intelligentia but by the masses and even then they are supposed to cast their secret ballots for one of the candidates already chosen by the political outfits where the infiltration of antisocials and criminals is unavoidable. Bernard Shaw in his famous essay ‘Freedom’ rightly says that the vast majority who are not literate or politics savvy exercise their franchise apparently to choose between already selected evil persons.

The criminalization of politics in India is not now a debatable fact. Everybody knows how criminals through the loopholes of law enter into the political arena and immediately after taking over the charge concentrate on minting money smashing the dreams of the poor, the famished, the destitute and the hapless swarming millions. The innumerable scams the political demagogues are involved in make headlines each day to prove the dishonesty of the political vanguards who defend their cause by the gift of the gab. Horse trading in any coalition clearly tells that the candidates after winning the elections rather trying to give something to the society take it as the most profitable trade. The few honest candidates who will to do good to the country become helpless victims of the vicious circle of politics.


Since time immemorial seers and saints including some poets and votaries of nature have found their most favourite getaway in silence in the most secluded places of the earth.

Spending years after years in the silence of nature they have tried to achieve that serene and blessed mood in which the burden of the mystery is lightened. It cannot be denied that silence is the breeding ground for all precious thoughts including modern science. In laboratories researchers work day in and day out in silence. It is no doubt difficult to maintain the equanimity of heart amidst the din and bustle of the city life. But truly strong person is he who can keep quiet in spite of the cacophony of the humdrum work-a-day life. It is the sound of silence that attracts the seers and nature lovers. Rabindranath Tagore, the great Bengali poet heard the message of eternal silence. He considered it more eloquent than words. The great Victorian poet Tennyson wanted to express his profound love for Arthur Hallam through silence. In most of the lyrics addressed to his friend in his celebrated work “In Memoriam” he admits the inadequacy of language to express his grief over the death of his dead friend. It is a fact that everything of this world is born out of the most fertile womb of silence. Silence offers us that meditative mood which helps us ‘see into the life of things’.

But the most puzzling paradox is this universe is perpetually filled in sounds. The chain reactions that are going on in millions of stars send sound waves through the length and breadth of this universe. Rabindranath Tagore has referred to that sound or tune of the universe which he tried to catch in many of his songs


Can we say that advertisements are not important at all in our life? We cannot say so because without ads people cannot get to learn the advent of new products in the market. In such highly competitive markets of today when same products are being manufactured by different companies the features and respective price of each product should come to light through advertisements.

On the contrary, it can be said that too much advertisement sometimes causes nuisance in our life. For example, when we are listening to an important news or watching a film or other forms of entertainment, advertisements come at short intervals and sometimes in quick succession as the most irritating and disgusting experience in our life. The process of enjoying aesthetic pleasure gets a serious blow and our chagrin reaches its extremity in such circumstances. If this be one face of advertising nuisance the other faces are more unwelcome and most dangerous.

There are lots of chit funds in the market that send gimmicks in the air with the help of popular celebrities. They put false ads before the innocent masses and raise huge fund from them promising and luring them with high returns. All these ads are obviously not only nuisance making but also death- dealing to the investors. Such ads need to be stopped and celibrities need to be choosy before consenting to participate in such ads.

Again there are multifarious companies who compromise with the qualities and quantities of their products and use that saved money for more and more advertisements. In fact, there are so muchadvertisements of innumerable products on television screen, in the newspapers, on the walls of big buildings, on the radio and inside the railway compartments that sometimes our heads become giddy. Then it seems that too much incidents are bad for our psyche.


If I had one crore rupees now I would only buy a good computer and devote all my money to do good to society. Of the numberless problems of the world the most formidable and death-dealing problem or social evil is the increase in criminal activities throughout the world. Methinks, there is the lack of infrastructure in our country to rehabilitate the criminals or to arrange for psychotherapy or other sorts of both medicinal and non medicinal treatment for the cure of the criminal instinct of those people who are arrested on grounds of molestation, rape, burglary, wagon breaking, drug trafficking, terrorism, secessionism, murder,riots etc. I think, there should be a lot of research to investigate the cause of the criminal activities of the people. Investigation as well research on how those instincts are to be nipped in the bud or prevented is the crying need of the day. If proper research is done on these I am sure some solution would come up that would help to reduce the criminal activities. No child is supposedly born with criminal instinct. In most cases circumstances and certain social conditions drive some to commit those abominable acts. Different sorts of criminal activities have different nature and most of them need streaming for individual solution and investigation.

I myself have seen some tender-aged boys collect subscription forcibly from the passing vehicles with a kind of adamance one cannot imagine. I think there should be an organization who would stop such activities through counselling, understand their spiritual bankruptcy, feel their socioeconomic problem and try to address them. If children are trained right from their early childhood they would lose the urge to use force for fulfilling their desire. I hope to spend a huge amount of money to facilitate all these activities. I would like to spend a great part of the fund to enable any good NGO to do all these works.

The rest of the fund I want to spend for the spread of value education in our country which will include invariably 2 hours of social service every week. If my dream of getting one crore of rupees all on a sudden be true my dream of purifying the society would not be a distant reality.

32. Imagine that you have come back to your school after twenty years as the inspector of schools, as a guest speaker, or as the parent of a student to discuss his or her school report with the principal. Describe what you feel and see.

Mamudpur MadhyamikJatiyaSiksha Pratisthan was my alma matter. Situated in rural area and almost one hundred and twenty kilometer away from Kolkata this school is a pride of that locality. For a number of years I am away from this institution. But when I got a call from my old school after almost 20 years my eyes glistened and a strong nostalgia engulfed me. The present Headmaster of this school who is almost of my age called me over the phone to speak on a seminar on the role of parents in the education of the children.

I was more than elated to hear that a number of alumni who are established in different fields of activities have also been invited to participate in the seminar. On the appointed day clad in dhuti I reached my old school and immediately a number of students in their uniform came to me to escort into the staff room first. There I did find some of the old retired

teachers who came to attend the seminar. After taking their blessings I went into the seminar

hall. After a brief speech the Headmaster introduced me to the students and the audience. After extending my thanks to all present there I started my speech. I started of saying how the school has gone ahead with its upgradation for class 12 and the extension of the buildings. Then I expressed my sorrows for my contemporaries who were also invited to participate but could not turn up for personal reasons. I told the parents not only to be careful of studies only but also to be careful of their moral behaviour. I added, ‘time is ripe for all of us, both the parents and the teachers to work in tandem to shape the character of the future assets and custodians of our society. You are all aware of the internet boom in the country. Some cybercafés I have seen on the way. Please make proper use of them and guide your kids to be ducks who suck the pure water out of all impurities. I would ask all the students to be respectful to the elders and be respectful to knowledge. If you practise meditation daily you would reach your desired goal very soon. Along with study you should try to do a bit of social work every week. This selfless work for the needy would purify your soul and take you ahead of time and you will be capable of big works in life. So please follow all these I shall be with you with all sorts of help. Today I am here with a cheque of one lac of rupees for all of you. I am donating this money to get good books in the library. Thank you all. May God bless you.’

I was greeted with thunderous applause and loud clappings.


I am a boy of eighteen and can clearly recollect how I spent my days in childhood playing with my little friends in my native village. I along with other children used to enjoy cultural programmes featuring jatra or dramatic performances on the occasion of religious festivals. Another thing that I can never forget about my childhood is my intimate association with my grandmother who is now no more. She had profound affection for me. She would tell me fine fairy tales and the stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. I would listen to them with rapt attention. Whenever I find leisure I become nostalgic about my childhood.


The 10th June, 2006 last was the happiest day in my life. It was the day when the results of the Madhyamik Pariksha were announced and I became the topper among the all appearing students. I secured 796 marks and got letter marks in all the subjects. When father gave me the good news I started crying out of intense joy. I always had the conviction that I would do quite well. But the result was really beyond my all expectation. However, the great achievement brought great joy not only to me but also to the members of my family, friends and relatives. The good news spread and congratulations started pouring in from my well-wishers. Soon the people of the print and electronic media crowded our little drawing room. I was interviewed by them in presence of my proud parents and teachers who had also arrived in the meantime. It was really the greatest and happiest moment in my life.


The saddest day in my life was the day when the Headmaster of our school, Mr. S. C. Chowdhury died in a road accident. On that day I got the rudest shock in my life. Mr. Chowdhury was an immensely popular person not only among students but also the local people. He was a learned man, a good teacher, a great administrator and above all, a good soul. On 15th January last year, Mr. Chowdhury was coming to school as usual on a scooter. Suddenly his scooter collided with a lorry and he was badly injured. He was immediately rushed to the local hospital where he was declared dead. His badly mutilated dead body was brought to school. Then we all could hardly keep back our tears. We were terribly and tremendously shocked.


Of all the subjects taught at school, I like English most. Ever since my early years at school, I have had great attraction for this foreign tongue. My father, a professor of English at a college has always helped me to learn the subject well. However, English has been my favourite subject for more than a single reason. It is the most important medium of international communication. It is one of the richest and finest languages of the world today. English has a great literature enriched by the great masters like Shakespeare, Milton, Dickens and a host of others. I am a regular reader of English literature. Everyday I spend some time reading English poems and stories. I have made up my mind to take up English in my future course of study.


Every person has his likes and dislikes, and I am no exception to this. I am a sports enthusiast and I like games and sports most. All outdoor games especially football and cricket are my special favourites. Not only do I like to play them but also I love watching soccer and cricket matches. I am also so fond of reading different sports magazines and autobiographies of great players like Gavaskar, Imran Khan, and Steve Waugh. Games apart, I am fond of visiting unknown places. I have also a great liking for music and magic shows. Though early rising is good for health, I dislike it. Frankly speaking, I find little pleasure from reading text book and facing exams. I dislike eating vegetables and taking milk. I hate criticising people and being criticised by them as well.


Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, one of the greatest patriots of India is my favourite hero. He was born to Janakinath Bose, an eminent lawyer and Prabhabati Devi, a pious lady on 23rd January, 1897 at Cuttack. Young Subhas Chandra was a brilliant student at Ravenshaw Collegiate School from where he passed the Matriculation Examination securing the second position. He did B.A. (Hons.) in Philosophy from Scottish Church College. He went to England from where he passed the I.C.S. Examination securing the fourth position. Back home, he plunged into the country’s freedom movement. Soon he became a great leader of the Indian National Congress and became its president twice. Subhas Chandra left the Congress and formed the Forward Bloc. He met the contemporary world leaders like Hitler and Stalin seeking their assistance to liberate his motherland. Later he formed I.N.A. at Singapore. Netaji attacked India but his army had to retreat for want of food and arms. It is said Netaji died in a plane crash. Dead or alive, Netaji’s burning patriotism will ever continue to inspire the nation.


Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay who was a great Bengali litterateur is my favourite writer. He was born at Debanandapur in the district of Hooghly in 1876. His early life full of struggles found an eloquent expression in his immortal stories and fictions. Of his numerous novels mention must be made of ‘Srikanta’, ‘Devdas’, ‘Datta’, ‘Abhagir Swarga’, ‘Bipradas’, ‘Bindur Chhele’ and ‘Ramer Sumati’. ‘Srikanta’ which is autobiographical in nature is his masterpiece. His ‘Mahesh’, ‘Lalu Bhulu’ etc are immortal short stories. I like Sarat Chandra as a writer because he highlighted the issues of common men and women of our society. Another important feature of his writing has been his lucid, limpid and refreshingly fluent style of writing. Sarat Chandra died in 1937 but he will live in the hearts of hundreds of readers for ever.


Ragging these days has definitely developed as the worst practice among students particularly in medical and engineering colleges as well as hostels of our country. The literal meaning of ragging is playing practical jokes on somebody or teasing someone. But this joke or teasing turns out to be a nightmare to the new comers or freshers. There are various forms of ragging. These include bathing on a winter night in cold water, sipping simmering tea or coffee, kissing a high voltage bulb, walking naked in the open and lots like these. Enactment and imposition of stringent laws, public awareness and most importantly true education to students can only check and stop this most cruel and inhuman practice of ragging prevalent in our society.


The 2001 census reveals that population growth has posed a major problem in our country today. India has a population of well over 100 crore only second to China. There are several factors contributing to the rapid growth of population in our country. Population explosion has led to a number of problems in our country. The number of unemployed youths is always on the rise. A large section of Indian population is living under the poverty line. These people are deprived of education and proper health care. There is growing frustration among the masses in our society giving rise to law and order problems. The evil forces of fundamentalism and disharmony are taking advantage of the situation. A number of steps have however been, taken by the government to check this increase in population. These include among others family planning, and literary campaign across the country. Unless the population in our country is stabilized no real progress is possible.


Brain drain refers to the migration of professional classes particularly engineers, doctors, scientists and scholars to more advanced countries having bigger and better job opportunities. In a developing country like ours such opportunities are mostly missing and they feel frustrated. These people are left with no option but to leave their motherland where they have been born and educated. The countries where Indian talents, mostly migrate include the U.S.A., the U.K., France, Germany and Canada. Recently Australia has emerged as the latest talent destination for Indian professionals and scholars. India loses every year thousands of brilliant scholars and efficient professionals who go out from our country and settle in these advanced countries accepting their citizenship. They devote and dedicate themselves to the development of these countries depriving their motherland. To check the exodous of the scholars government should boost researches and ensure better jobs.


Global warming has been one of the most serious threats to the very survival of man on earth. There are clear indications that our earth is getting gradually warmer. The huge mass of ice in the polar regions and on the mountain peaks have started receding at a rapid rate. There have been cases and incidents where a large scale damage and destruction to marine life has been confirmed due to the rising temperature of waters in seas and oceans. Of course, the major causes contributing to global warming are the large and indiscriminate felling of trees, consumption of fossil fuel for transport and cooking purposes, excessive and unchecked use and application of chemical fertilizer, and insect and pest killers in cultivation. To check global warming plantation of more and more trees has to be encouraged and alternative energy sources like solar energy, hydral power have to be developed.


Dowry refers to property or money brought by a bride to her husband through marriage. The system of dowry is a great curse and social evil prevalent in Indian society. The murdering of brides by their husbands and in-laws has become common in our society. The existence of dowry system in our society can be attributed to ignorance, greed and

poverty. To eradicate this stigma from the face of Indian society, a number of measures need to be taken. Economic condition of people in general has to be first improved and education for all especially for girls should be ensured. Much of the problem of the dowry system will be solved if the girls and women in our society can stand on their own feet financially, secondly the government must enact and enforce more stringent laws prohibiting the evil practice of dowry. Last but not the least, the public awareness should be created against dowry system.


Unrest and indiscipline among students are gradually on the rise in our soceity these days. This is no doubt, a dangerous tendency. This unrest among students in schools, colleges and universities is expressed through gossiping in the class, calling strikes, destroying public property and fighting among themselves. There are various reasons behind students’ unrest in our society. The materialistic basis of education which is in sharp contrast with the value-oriented education is thought to be the major cause of students gradually getting indisciplined. The majority of students want to pass the exam by hook or by crook and ultimately get jobs. Acquiring knowledge always takes a back seat with them. There is little personal contact between teachers and students. These apart, parental care for and control over their wards have become weak these days. Infiltration of politics into educational institution is another major reason for student unrest. The quicker the causes for the unrest among students are removed the better it is for the health of our society.


Terrorism means the use of violence and threats of violence, especially for political ends. It is now a global phenomenon. Some dogmatic religious organizations, political outfits, separatists and ISI backed militants have girded up their lions to lead our country to a complete state of topsy-turvy. The friction between the Nagas and the Kukis seems to be as old as the hills. But terrorism in north-eastern part of India is largely due to the failure of the economic policy of our government. Pakistani militants in league with Indian separatists are destroying the peace in Kashmir. The use of yellow explosives in Bombay proves foreign intervention in our affairs. The foreign policy of America is also responsible for incidents of militancy in India. Indian government should take care of the deprived to passify Indian militants and should be more stringent and diplomatic in dealing with foreign militants. Again the Indian youths, should be united in a countrywide drive for the awareness of national unity among the masses.


There goes a proverb – “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy”. The importance of games and sports can hardly be exaggerated. These are important and essential not

only for success in studies but also for success in every walk of life. Games and sports include all outdoor and indoor games like football, cricket, hockey, tennis, chess, table tennis and carom. Athletics like run, jump, throw etc. and gymnastics are part of games and sports. Games have many benefits. They keep our body and mind fit and sound. They provide a strong and balanced mind which resides in a strong and stout body. Players get a lot of fun and pleasure during games, and their minds are then free from worries and anxieties. Games develop in the players team spirit, value of discipline and sportsman spirit. They also teach us to take the right kind of decisions at the right time. We all should take part in games regularly.


Telecommunications have brought about a revolution in the field of communication throughout the world. These generally apply to the sending of messages by the telegraph, telephone, radio, televeison or radar. Satellite communication has become very common these days, thanks to the wonderful advancement of technology. In addition, mobile telephones, Radio paging, Electronic Mail, (E-mail), Voice Mail, Videoconferencing have become immensely common and popular in our country these days. Mobile telephone service in the country was introduced in the early eighties and has now become hugely popular. The rapid progress and advancement in the field of telecommunication has led to the comfort and economic growth of the people across our country and the world as well. It has indeed killed and conquered distance making the world of ours a global village.


National integration is the crying need of our country. The evil forces posing a serious threat to the country’s unity, have been raising their ugly heads in different parts of the country today. The biggest threat to the country’s unity and integrity has been the forces of communalism and fundamentalism which are active to destroy the secular fabric of the Indian society. Of the other major factors affecting national unity, mention must be made of caste system, poverty and ignorance. Provincialism is another great threat to the country’s unity. The secessionist and separatist forces are always active in various parts of the country like Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern states. To eradicate the problems disturbing national integration, the government should put greater thrust on economic progress and education. The cooperation of the international community is also imperative to combat it.


A student has his duties to his parents, to his classmates, to his friends and to his neighbours. But the student has a great duty to his teachers too. The teacher plays a

great role in a student’s life. He builds up his character and moulds him into a man in society. Hence he should always obey and respect him. He should attend his classes, listen to his lectures, take down notes and prepare the homework given by the teacher He should also ask the teacher for clarification and explanation of certain academic matters. Students must make an atmosphere in the classroom where the teacher can impart education without any kind of distraction and disturbance. Students should never indulge in gossip and while away the precious time. They need to be focussed on their studies. Academic matters apart, students should co-operate with the teachers in conducting co-curricular and cultural activities such as debate, drama, music and the like. A student should always try to emulate his teachers in academic matters as well as ethical aspects of life. Such students can only emerge as true citizens of the society.


Tourism, a growing industry, has a great future in India. The country has many places of fascinating natural scenery. We have also places and objects of historical and geographical interest. There is hardly any country in the world with such a rich variety in natural setting. We have Kashmir and the Himalayas in the north; Kanyakumari, Kodaikanal and Kovalam in the south; Sillong and the Sunderbans, Digha and Darjeeling in the east, Mt. Abu and Mumbai Ajanta and Ajmir in the west. In addition, India has the wealth of a rich variety of flora and fauna, art and culture. The Govt. of India has taken a number of steps to attract tourists from all over the country as well as abroad. Both high and low cost hotels have been built in the places of tourist interest. Arrangements of luxury buses, cars, steamers and well-trained guides have been made for comfort and convenience of tourists. The government has become more serious to attract both foreign as well as domestic tourists by building more lodges, hotels, youth hostels on the tourist spots. Tourism has become a great source of revenue now-a-days. India has the potential of emerging as the greatest of tourist destinations in the world. The government should, therefore, spare no effort to boost tourism in India.


The night before the examination is a nightmare to me. As I do not study regularly and seriously all the year round, my preparation for the exam is never perfect. Obviously on the eve of the exam, I get extremely busy and serious. Then I invariably lose my nerve. The fear of facing the exam tells on my nerves. Then I hurry through the books and notes. I always get the feeling that I am going to fare badly in the exam next morning. Answers to many questions often seem to be unknown and unprepared. Then I spend some highly anxious moments inside my study room. I start pacing up and down the room with the books or notes in my hands. My parents often insist on my eating and sleeping in time. But I do not have either any appetite or sleep. Even if I eat I can hardly relish the food.


India being a developing country, and our society being steeped in lots of evils and plagued by problems, students have a lot of work to do for the uplift of the society. In our country literacy is still a huge problem. During their long vacations and other holidays or even during their leisure hours, students can take upon themselves the noble responsibility to teach illiterate masses the three R’s. Ignorant people living in villages and slums do not have proper knowledge about the rules of health and hygiene and they often fall victims to different diseases. Students can go to these places and tell them how to maintain good health and fight diseases. These apart, they can also render service during natural calamities. Thus social service these days has become an essential part of education.


Last year in July I had an opportunity to visit a fair on the occasion of the Car Festival held at Mahesh in Hooghly. I visited the fair accompanied by father. The fair sat on either side of the Grand Trunk Road. When we entered the fair ground, we found ourselves amidst a sea of visitors. There were hundreds of shops selling out articles of necessity as well as luxury. There was always a great din and bustle in the fair. While the elders were bargaining over essential commodities, the children crowded toy shops. The merrygo-round was, however a great attraction for the children. But the biggest attraction was definitely the huge chariot with Sri Jagannath, Balaram and Subhadra sitting in it. Hundreds of deveotees were pulling the ropes and many more were waiting for their turn. But we kept ourselves away from the crazy crowd. At last we entered a food stall and relished oilcakes and sweets. I came back home dog tired but in a very happy frame of mind.


Like every child I always had a dream of travelling in plane. My dream however, came true on 15th October, 2006 when I went to Hyderabad from Kolkata accompanied by my parents. We reached Netaji Subhas Chandra Basu International Airport, Dum Dum two hours ahead of the air journey. Then the customs officers checked our bags. We started walking towards the plane when an announcement for departure of the plane was made. I was feeling tremendously excited about our first ever plane journey. At last, we boarded the plane climbing a flight of stairs. I was very lucky to have a seat beside the window. Then we tied up our seat belts. Soon the plane started moving and took off. Initially I got nervous. However, I gradually overcame my nervousness and started enjoying the journey to the full. The objects on earth below looked really small and unclear. In the meantime, we were served snacks by a pretty air hostess. I could hardly feel how two hours time had passed so quickly. Our plane landed at Hyderabad airport from where we took to my uncle’s house.



In the last Puja vacation I visited Vishakhapattanam along with my parents. On October 9, we reached Howrah Station at 8 p.m. to catch the Chennai mail. We were lucky to get two lower berths and I occupied a place near the window. The train started five minutes after the scheduled time of departure. Soon the train picked up speed. That being a moonlit night, I could clearly see the fields, rivers and trees outside. I was really enchanted by the wonderful beauties outside through the window. Our first halt was at Kharagpur. Then we had our dinner and went to sleep. Next morning, I woke up and started enjoying the beauties of the undulating landscape of Orissa. At Ganjam Road, a number of passengers entered our coach and some of them forcefully occupied seats. But we were greatly relieved when they vacated the compartment at the next station. The landscape of Andhra Pradesh was equally attractive with the hills and hillocks visible some distance away. Mother was, however, always busy supplying us different delicacies. At last, we reached our destination around noon.


Once at 9 a.m. I boarded a crowded bus at Sinthi to go to Howrah. Many passengers stood on the footboard and some were even hanging there. I had to struggle hard to get inside the bus. I shouldered and elbowed my way inside. I also trod many feet in the process. As a consequence many used abusive language. I was sweating badly that being a hot and humid day. I was sandwitched between my co-passengers and my feet was badly trodden. What was worse still, the bus was stopping here and there for picking

up more and more passengers. This caused anger among passengers. At last, the bus reached Howrah and we all got down heaving a deep sigh of relief.


Illiteracy is no doubt a curse. An illiterate person is like a man thrown in a blind alley groping for light. Hence the light of knowledge should be spread among all including the poor, the famished, the destitute and the hapless. It is of course, a matter of pleasure that both the government and some voluntary organizations have been making much headway towards removing illiteracy from our country. The most recent drive of the Government for mass literacy is laudable. It has employed a huge number of parateachers for mass literacy and to check the number of dropouts. Many night schools, open universities and adult education centres have been established to achieve hundred percent literacy. But along with serving mid-day meals primary education should be made compulsory so that illiteracy is totally obliterated from the country.


It is said Bengalees celebrate thirteen festivals in twelve months. This demonstrates their jovial mood, love of culture and religion. To begin with, the year starts with the celebration of the English New Year’s Day on the first day of January. It is followed by Saraswati Puja which is mostly the festival of students. Then comes Doljatra, the festival of colours and others one after another. The Bengali ‘Nababarsha’, ‘Buddha Purnima, Rathajatra, Janmasthami and Biswakarma Puja. But the greatest Bengali festival is undoubtedly Durga Puja which is celebrated across the state with gaiety and grandeur. It is followed by the festival of Kali Puja, Diwali, the festivals of lights, and Jagadhatri Puja. These apart, the Muslim Bengalees observe Eid and Muharram with grandeur and enthusiasm. Christmas which is predominantly a Christian festival is celebrated across the state with a lot of enthusiasm and solemnity. In the countryside Poush Sankranti is held with pomp and pleasure. All these festivals have a great impact on the Bengalees contributing to their art and culture, and bringing them closer.


Television which is called an idiot box is no doubt a wonderful invention of science. But it should be remembered that the improper use of it may harm us. Often we glue our eyes to the television screen for hours. We go on viewing soaps, cereals and films at a stretch. This may cause several health hazards. It may damage our eyesight, cause heart ailment and bad headache. It does a lot of harm to the children. Watching cartoons becomes a daily habit with them. At this they lose the habit of reading. Sometimes obscene pictures are shown in the advertisements. They may bring about psychological imbalances in the child’s mind.

Moreover too much dependence on television affects our social communications. Instead of giving time to our visitors we concentrate on TV programmes. Various programmes like reality shows,crime diary,etc. do not always do good to us. Reality shows inspire people to become celebrities in cultural fields. They do never inspire students to be scientists, novelists, doctors or academicians. Though television itself is a good gadget, its misuse becomes harmful to us.




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